2.1 Atmosphere

2.1 Atmosphere

  • Emissions of Pollutants
  • Air Quality
  • On index

Emissions of Pollutants

Gaumur has published the first information on carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from both Landsvirkjun power plants and PCC BakkiSilicon, a silicon metal plant, in the central area. Emissions are expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year. 

Emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents from PCC BakkiSilicon is by the company´s use of raw materials and the production quantity.  Estimated annual emissions under full capacity are 120.000 t of carbon dioxide. In 2018, the plant emitted the equivalent of 50,402 t of carbon dioxide. This low figure is explained by the fact that production did not start until the end of the year. Birta, furnace 1, was launched on 30 April and Bogi, furnace 2, was launched on 31 August. The first full year of operation of the factory is therefore in 2019. 

 

Losun mengandi efna

2.1 a. Emissions of pollutants - power plants - greenhouse gases

The graph shows the emission of greenhouse gasses from the power plants in Theistareykir, Krafla, and Bjarnarflag 2011-2020.

Greenhouse gases emitted by the power plants are carbon dioxide and methane. The amount of methane is converted to carbon dioxide values where 1 kg of methane is equivalent to 25 kg of carbon dioxide.

Below are the original data and their processing for the emission of greenhouse gasses for the pictures that follow (2.1 a.-2.1 c).

Original data and processing.

Losun mengandi efna

2.1 b. Emissions of pollutants - power plants - hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

The graph shows the emission of hydrogen sulfide in tonnes per year.

See original data and processing in figure 2.1 a.

Emissions of pollutants

2.1 c. Emissions of pollutants - PCC BakkiSilicon

The graph shows the emission of greenhouse gasses from PCC BakkiSilicon from 2018 to 2020.

Data and processing.

 

Air Quality

Þeistareykir power station and PCC BakkiSilicon have recently started operating.
Data on air quality will be published when monitoring has been in progress for at least 6 months from beginning of operations. 

Air Quality

2.1 i. Number of Days Below the Guideline Limits, Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

This graph shows the number of days in which the concentration of SO2 is below the guideline limits. Measurements from 2016 only extend to December. In 2017-2020, the concentration of  SO2 never exceeded the limit values of 350 µg/m³ per hour and 125 µg/m³ per day.

Original data and processing.

Air Quality

2.1 j. Concentration of Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) at Húsavíkurhöfði, Mean Value per Month, Day and Hour 

This graph shows background measurements from Bakki from December 2016 to December 2017, along with measurements from PCC BakkiSilicon's period of service. 

These measurements show the concentration of sulphur dioxide (SO2) in µg/m3

Air quality measurements come from Station 1 - South - Húsavíkurhöfði, which is located just north of the northernmost part of the inhabited area of Húsavík on Húsavíkurhöfði.

 

Air Quality

2.1 k. Concentration of Sulphur Dioxide ( SO2) at Héðinsvík, Mean Value per Month, Day and Hour 

This graph shows background measurements on air quality from Bakki from December 2016 to December 2017, along with measurements from the ferrosilicium plant's PCC BakkiSilicon, period of service. 

These measurements show the concentration of sulphur dioxide (SO2) in µg/m³. 

Air quality measurements come from Station 2- North - Héðinsvík - which is located at the northernmost part of the defined industrial estate of Bakki, on the borderline of Norðurþing and Tjörneshreppur municipalities.

2.1 l. Number of Days Below the Guideline Limits, PM10

2.1 l. Number of Days Below the Guideline Limits, PM10

This graph shows the number of days in which the concentration of PM10 is below the guideline limits. Measurements from 2016 only extend to December. In 2017, 2018, and 2019 the concentration of  PM10 never exceeded the limit values of 50 µg/m³ per day, at Húsavíkurhöfði but one day at Héðinsvík in 2018, 2019, and 2020. In 2021, the concentration of PM10 twice exceeded the reference limit at Húsvíkurhöfði.

Air Quality

2.1 m. Concentration of PM10 - Húsavíkurhöfði, Mean Value per Month, Day and Hour 

This graph shows background measurements on air quality from Bakki from December 2016 to December 2017, along with measurements from the ferrosilicium plant's PCC BakkiSilicon, period of service. 

These measurements show the concentration of PM10 in µg/m3

Air quality measurements come from Station 1 - South - Húsavíkurhöfði, which is located just north of the northernmost part of the inhabited area of Húsavík on Húsavíkurhöfði.

The measurements of the highest daily and hourly value goes back to October 2016 but the monthly value goes back to December 2016. 

Loftgæði

2.1 n. Concentration of PM10 - Héðinsvík, Mean Value per Month, Day and Hour

This graph shows background measurements on air quality from Bakki from December 2016 to December 2017, along with measurements from the ferrosilicium plant's PCC BakkiSilicon, period of service. 

These measurements show the concentration of PM10 in µg/m3. 

Air quality measurements come from Station 1 - North - Héðinsvík, which is located just north of Bakki, by Héðinsvík.

The measurements of the highest daily and hourly value goes back to October 2019 but the monthly value goes back to December 2016. 

Loftgæði

2.1 o. Concentration PM 2,5 - Húsavíkurhöfði, Mean Value per Month, Day and Hour

This graph shows background measurements on air quality from Bakki from December 2016 to December 2017, along with measurements from the ferrosilicon plant's PCC BakkiSilicon, period of service. 

These measurements show the concentration of PM2,5 in µg/m3. 

Air quality measurements come from Station 1 - South - Húsavíkurhöfði, which is located just north of the northernmost part of the inhabited area of Húsavík on Húsavíkurhöfði.

The highest daily and hourly value measurements go back to October 2019 but the monthly value goes back to December 2016. 

From September 25th until November 10th, 2021, the meter for PM2.5 was faulty, so values for October 2021 are missing. The values for September and November for which measurements are available are used.

Loftgæði

2.1 p. Concentration PM 2,5 - Héðinsvík, Mean Value per Month, Day and Hour

This graph shows background measurements on air quality from Bakki from December 2016 to December 2017, along with measurements from the ferrosilicium plant's PCC BakkiSilicon, period of service. 

These measurements show the concentration of PM2,5 in µg/m3. 

Air quality measurements come from Station 2 - North, which is located just north of Bakki, by Héðinsvík.

The measurements of the highest daily and hourly value goes back to January 2018 but the monthly value goes back to December 2016. 

On index

Increased industrial activity and growing traffic by land and sea result in increased emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere. Emission of pollutants affects people's quality of life and it is therefore important to monitor those emissions from power plants and industrial manufacturers and share information on air quality with the public. 

This index will display information on greenhouse gas emissions in tons:

  • PCC Bakki Silicon - emission of carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • Þeistareykir - emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) along with emission of CO2 equivalents in tons (CH4 converted to CO2)
  • Krafla - emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) along with emission of CO2 equivalents in tons (CH4 converted to CO2)
  • Bjarnarflag - emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) along with emission of CO2 equivalents in tons (CH4 converted to CO2)

Information on emission of chemicals causing local air pollution will also be published:

  • PCC Bakki Silicon - emission of SO2 ,  NO2, PM10 , PAH and BaP in tons
  • Þeistareykir - emission of H2S in tons
  • Krafla - emission of H2S in tons
  • Bjarnarflag - emission of H2S in tons 

Air quality will be monitored in Húsavík, Reykjahlíð, Vogar and Eyvindarholt and information published on the number of days the concentration of certain chemicals is within guideline limits. 

  • Reykjahlíð - hydrogen sulphide (H2S) - µg/m³
  • Vogar - hydrogen sulphide (H2S) - µg/m³
  • Eyvindarholt - hydrogen sulphide (H2S) - µg/m³
  • Húsavík - hydrogen sulphide (H2S) - µg/m³, sulphur dioxide(SO2)- µg/m³, nitrogen dioxide - µg/m³, PM10 airborne particles - µg/m³, PM2,5 airborne particles- µg/m³, PAH (PAH totality along with B(a)P)- µg/m³

Guidelines on public health limits are taken from regulations on sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides, benzene, carbon monoxide, airborne particles and lead in the atmosphere and information to the public no. 251/2002, regulations on (2.) revision on regulation no. 251/2002 on sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides, benzene, carbon monoxide, airborne particles and lead in the atmosphere and information to the public no. 245/2014 and regulation on concentration of sulphur dixoide in the atmosphere no. 514/2010.

Frequency

Information on data showing emission of pollutants and air quality will be published yearly.

Area 

Central area: Húsavík, Þeistareykir and Mývatnssveit.

Accountability

The project manager is responsible for acquiring the data and publishing it according to the publishing schedule.

Source Material

Source material will be collected from Landsvirkjun, PCC BakkiSilicon and The Environment Agency of Iceland.